Taking a very different tack, Comverse's former CFO, David Kreinberg, last week became the first top level executive to settle actions brought by the SEC and the US Attorneys' Office since options backdating came into the media spotlight last Spring.In settling with the SEC, the former Comverse CFO consented to, among other sanctions, a permanent injunction against violation of the securities laws, a permanent bar against serving as a corporate officer or director, and payment of .4 million in disgorgement and pre-judgment interest.With respect to both, there are pending parallel criminal actions as well.As most of you know, the Comverse criminal case has had a certain amount of drama surrounding former CEO Kobi Alexander, who was first a fugitive from justice, and later was located after he took up residence in Namibia, where he is presently fighting extradition to the United States.
This is a way of repricing options to make them valuable or more valuable when the option "strike price" (the fixed price at which the owner of the option can purchase stock) is fixed to the stock price at the date the option was granted.
Because the backdated options’ strike price is lower than the market price on the actual grant date, the recipient has received something of greater monetary value (even if the options have not yet vested) than a correctly dated at-the-money option. Companies could reward executives with cash compensation or additional properly dated and priced incentive awards, including options, rather than engage in dubious backdating practices. It is clear that there must be reasons other than greed that have led so many to backdate executive options. Academics, regulators, and practitioners alike have tried to gain a better understanding of these incentives and the roles they have played in the backdating scandal; however, there is as of yet no consensus regarding the causes of backdating. This is problematic because policy, legislative, or regulatory changes are unlikely to be effective if the root causes are unknown. In 2008, the long-term capital gain rate for individuals in the lowest two tax brackets (currently 5% and 15%) was further reduced to zero.
Untangling the causes of backdating will remain elusive unless each factor is considered in detail using evidence from different regimes. III 2009) (allowing carry forward for a credit for the prior year’s minimum tax liability that resulted from certain timing differences). D (illustrating in Example 4 the effect of AMT); see generally Francine J. 337 (2002) (providing a detailed discussion of the AMT and its application to ISOs). These reduced rates are currently effective until the end of 2012. 111-312, 124 Stat 3296 (extending reduced rates from the end of 2010 until the end of 2012).
Both sets of motivations arise from the quantitative and qualitative benefits, costs, and risks of issuing and receiving backdated options. Certain AMT may be carried forward and applied to reduce the general tax payable in subsequent years (to the extent that the general tax exceeds the tentative alternative minimum tax liability for the subsequent year).
Most of the research to date has focused on supply side factors (e.g., accounting treatment, securities regulations, and corporate taxation), while there has been little discussion of demand side factors.